Module exchangelib.util

Expand source code
import datetime
import io
import itertools
import logging
import re
import socket
import time
import xml.sax.handler  # nosec
from base64 import b64decode, b64encode
from codecs import BOM_UTF8
from decimal import Decimal
from functools import wraps
from threading import get_ident
from urllib.parse import urlparse

import isodate
import lxml.etree  # nosec
import requests.exceptions
from defusedxml.expatreader import DefusedExpatParser
from defusedxml.sax import _InputSource
from oauthlib.oauth2 import TokenExpiredError
from pygments import highlight
from pygments.formatters.terminal import TerminalFormatter
from pygments.lexers.html import XmlLexer
from requests_oauthlib import OAuth2Session

from .errors import (
    InvalidTypeError,
    MalformedResponseError,
    RateLimitError,
    RedirectError,
    RelativeRedirect,
    TransportError,
)

log = logging.getLogger(__name__)
xml_log = logging.getLogger(f"{__name__}.xml")


def require_account(f):
    @wraps(f)
    def wrapper(self, *args, **kwargs):
        if not self.account:
            raise ValueError(f"{self.__class__.__name__} must have an account")
        return f(self, *args, **kwargs)

    return wrapper


def require_id(f):
    @wraps(f)
    def wrapper(self, *args, **kwargs):
        if not self.account:
            raise ValueError(f"{self.__class__.__name__} must have an account")
        if not self.id:
            raise ValueError(f"{self.__class__.__name__} must have an ID")
        return f(self, *args, **kwargs)

    return wrapper


class ParseError(lxml.etree.ParseError):
    """Used to wrap lxml ParseError in our own class."""


class ElementNotFound(Exception):
    """Raised when the expected element was not found in a response stream."""

    def __init__(self, msg, data):
        super().__init__(msg)
        self.data = data


# Regex of UTF-8 control characters that are illegal in XML 1.0 (and XML 1.1)
_ILLEGAL_XML_CHARS_RE = re.compile("[\x00-\x08\x0b\x0c\x0e-\x1F\uD800-\uDFFF\uFFFE\uFFFF]")

# XML namespaces
SOAPNS = "http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/"
MNS = "http://schemas.microsoft.com/exchange/services/2006/messages"
TNS = "http://schemas.microsoft.com/exchange/services/2006/types"
ENS = "http://schemas.microsoft.com/exchange/services/2006/errors"
AUTODISCOVER_BASE_NS = "http://schemas.microsoft.com/exchange/autodiscover/responseschema/2006"
AUTODISCOVER_REQUEST_NS = "http://schemas.microsoft.com/exchange/autodiscover/outlook/requestschema/2006"
AUTODISCOVER_RESPONSE_NS = "http://schemas.microsoft.com/exchange/autodiscover/outlook/responseschema/2006a"

ns_translation = {
    "s": SOAPNS,
    "m": MNS,
    "t": TNS,
}
for item in ns_translation.items():
    lxml.etree.register_namespace(*item)


def is_iterable(value, generators_allowed=False):
    """Check if value is a list-like object. Don't match generators and generator-like objects here by default, because
    callers don't necessarily guarantee that they only iterate the value once. Take care to not match string types and
    bytes.

    :param value: any type of object
    :param generators_allowed: if True, generators will be treated as iterable (Default value = False)

    :return: True or False
    """
    if generators_allowed:
        if not isinstance(value, (bytes, str)) and hasattr(value, "__iter__"):
            return True
    else:
        if isinstance(value, (tuple, list, set)):
            return True
    return False


def chunkify(iterable, chunksize):
    """Split an iterable into chunks of size ``chunksize``. The last chunk may be smaller than ``chunksize``.

    :param iterable:
    :param chunksize:
    :return:
    """
    from .queryset import QuerySet

    if hasattr(iterable, "__getitem__") and not isinstance(iterable, QuerySet):
        # tuple, list. QuerySet has __getitem__ but that evaluates the entire query greedily. We don't want that here.
        for i in range(0, len(iterable), chunksize):
            yield iterable[i : i + chunksize]
    else:
        # generator, set, map, QuerySet
        chunk = []
        for i in iterable:
            chunk.append(i)
            if len(chunk) == chunksize:
                yield chunk
                chunk = []
        if chunk:
            yield chunk


def peek(iterable):
    """Check if an iterable is empty and return status and the rewinded iterable.

    :param iterable:
    :return:
    """
    if hasattr(iterable, "__len__"):
        # tuple, list, set
        return not iterable, iterable
    # generator
    try:
        first = next(iterable)
    except StopIteration:
        return True, iterable
    # We can't rewind a generator. Instead, chain the first element and the rest of the generator
    return False, itertools.chain([first], iterable)


def xml_to_str(tree, encoding=None, xml_declaration=False):
    """Serialize an XML tree. Returns unicode if 'encoding' is None. Otherwise, we return encoded 'bytes'.

    :param tree:
    :param encoding:  (Default value = None)
    :param xml_declaration:  (Default value = False)
    :return:
    """
    if xml_declaration and not encoding:
        raise AttributeError("'xml_declaration' is not supported when 'encoding' is None")
    if encoding:
        return lxml.etree.tostring(tree, encoding=encoding, xml_declaration=True)
    return lxml.etree.tostring(tree, encoding=str, xml_declaration=False)


def get_xml_attr(tree, name):
    elem = tree.find(name)
    if elem is None:  # Must compare with None, see XML docs
        return None
    return elem.text or None


def get_xml_attrs(tree, name):
    return [elem.text for elem in tree.findall(name) if elem.text is not None]


def value_to_xml_text(value):
    from .ewsdatetime import EWSDate, EWSDateTime, EWSTimeZone
    from .indexed_properties import EmailAddress, PhoneNumber
    from .properties import AssociatedCalendarItemId, Attendee, ConversationId, Mailbox

    # We can't just create a map and look up with type(value) because we want to support subtypes
    if isinstance(value, str):
        return safe_xml_value(value)
    if isinstance(value, bool):
        return "1" if value else "0"
    if isinstance(value, bytes):
        return b64encode(value).decode("ascii")
    if isinstance(value, (int, Decimal)):
        return str(value)
    if isinstance(value, datetime.time):
        return value.isoformat()
    if isinstance(value, EWSTimeZone):
        return value.ms_id
    if isinstance(value, EWSDateTime):
        return value.ewsformat()
    if isinstance(value, EWSDate):
        return value.ewsformat()
    if isinstance(value, PhoneNumber):
        return value.phone_number
    if isinstance(value, EmailAddress):
        return value.email
    if isinstance(value, Mailbox):
        return value.email_address
    if isinstance(value, Attendee):
        return value.mailbox.email_address
    if isinstance(value, ConversationId):
        return value.id
    if isinstance(value, AssociatedCalendarItemId):
        return value.id
    raise TypeError(f"Unsupported type: {type(value)} ({value})")


def xml_text_to_value(value, value_type):
    from .ewsdatetime import EWSDate, EWSDateTime

    if value_type == str:
        return value
    if value_type == bool:
        try:
            return {
                "true": True,
                "on": True,
                "false": False,
                "off": False,
            }[value.lower()]
        except KeyError:
            return None
    return {
        bytes: safe_b64decode,
        int: int,
        Decimal: Decimal,
        datetime.timedelta: isodate.parse_duration,
        EWSDate: EWSDate.from_string,
        EWSDateTime: EWSDateTime.from_string,
    }[value_type](value)


def set_xml_value(elem, value, version=None):
    from .ewsdatetime import EWSDate, EWSDateTime
    from .fields import FieldOrder, FieldPath
    from .properties import EWSElement
    from .version import Version

    if isinstance(value, (str, bool, bytes, int, Decimal, datetime.time, EWSDate, EWSDateTime)):
        elem.text = value_to_xml_text(value)
    elif isinstance(value, _element_class):
        elem.append(value)
    elif isinstance(value, (FieldPath, FieldOrder)):
        elem.append(value.to_xml())
    elif isinstance(value, EWSElement):
        if not isinstance(version, Version):
            raise InvalidTypeError("version", version, Version)
        elem.append(value.to_xml(version=version))
    elif is_iterable(value, generators_allowed=True):
        for v in value:
            set_xml_value(elem, v, version=version)
    else:
        raise ValueError(f"Unsupported type {type(value)} for value {value} on elem {elem}")
    return elem


def safe_xml_value(value, replacement="?"):
    return _ILLEGAL_XML_CHARS_RE.sub(replacement, value)


def create_element(name, attrs=None, nsmap=None):
    if ":" in name:
        ns, name = name.split(":")
        name = f"{{{ns_translation[ns]}}}{name}"
    elem = _forgiving_parser.makeelement(name, nsmap=nsmap)
    if attrs:
        # Try hard to keep attribute order, to ensure deterministic output. This simplifies testing.
        # Dicts in Python 3.6+ have stable ordering.
        for k, v in attrs.items():
            if isinstance(v, bool):
                v = "true" if v else "false"
            elif isinstance(v, int):
                v = str(v)
            elem.set(k, v)
    return elem


def add_xml_child(tree, name, value):
    # We're calling add_xml_child many places where we don't have the version handy. Don't pass EWSElement or list of
    # EWSElement to this function!
    tree.append(set_xml_value(elem=create_element(name), value=value))


class StreamingContentHandler(xml.sax.handler.ContentHandler):
    """A SAX content handler that returns a character data for a single element back to the parser. The parser must have
    a 'buffer' attribute we can append data to.
    """

    def __init__(self, parser, ns, element_name):
        xml.sax.handler.ContentHandler.__init__(self)
        self._parser = parser
        self._ns = ns
        self._element_name = element_name
        self._parsing = False

    def startElementNS(self, name, qname, attrs):
        if name == (self._ns, self._element_name):
            # we can expect element data next
            self._parsing = True
            self._parser.element_found = True

    def endElementNS(self, name, qname):
        if name == (self._ns, self._element_name):
            # all element data received
            self._parsing = False

    def characters(self, content):
        if not self._parsing:
            return
        self._parser.buffer.append(content)


def prepare_input_source(source):
    # Extracted from xml.sax.expatreader.saxutils.prepare_input_source
    f = source
    source = _InputSource()
    source.setByteStream(f)
    return source


def safe_b64decode(data):
    # Incoming base64-encoded data is not always padded to a multiple of 4. Python's parser is more strict and requires
    # padding. Add padding if it's needed.
    overflow = len(data) % 4
    if overflow:
        if isinstance(data, str):
            padding = "=" * (4 - overflow)
        else:
            padding = b"=" * (4 - overflow)
        data += padding
    return b64decode(data)


class StreamingBase64Parser(DefusedExpatParser):
    """A SAX parser that returns a generator of base64-decoded character content."""

    def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
        DefusedExpatParser.__init__(self, *args, **kwargs)
        self._namespaces = True
        self.buffer = None
        self.element_found = None

    def parse(self, r):
        raw_source = r.raw
        # Like upstream but yields the return value of self.feed()
        raw_source = prepare_input_source(raw_source)
        self.prepareParser(raw_source)
        file = raw_source.getByteStream()
        self.buffer = []
        self.element_found = False
        buffer = file.read(self._bufsize)
        collected_data = []
        while buffer:
            if not self.element_found:
                collected_data += buffer
            yield from self.feed(buffer)
            buffer = file.read(self._bufsize)
        # Any remaining data in self.buffer should be padding chars now
        self.buffer = None
        self.close()
        if not self.element_found:
            data = bytes(collected_data)
            raise ElementNotFound("The element to be streamed from was not found", data=bytes(data))

    def feed(self, data, isFinal=0):
        """Yield the current content of the character buffer."""
        DefusedExpatParser.feed(self, data=data, isFinal=isFinal)
        return self._decode_buffer()

    def _decode_buffer(self):
        remainder = ""
        for data in self.buffer:
            available = len(remainder) + len(data)
            overflow = available % 4  # Make sure we always decode a multiple of 4
            if remainder:
                data = remainder + data
                remainder = ""
            if overflow:
                remainder, data = data[-overflow:], data[:-overflow]
            if data:
                yield b64decode(data)
        self.buffer = [remainder] if remainder else []


_forgiving_parser = lxml.etree.XMLParser(
    resolve_entities=False,  # This setting is recommended by lxml for safety
    recover=True,  # This setting is non-default
    huge_tree=True,  # This setting enables parsing huge attachments, mime_content and other large data
)
_element_class = _forgiving_parser.makeelement("x").__class__


class BytesGeneratorIO(io.RawIOBase):
    """A BytesIO that can produce bytes from a streaming HTTP request. Expects r.iter_content() as input
    lxml tries to be smart by calling `getvalue` when present, assuming that the entire string is in memory.
    Omitting `getvalue` forces lxml to stream the request through `read` avoiding the memory duplication.
    """

    def __init__(self, bytes_generator):
        self._bytes_generator = bytes_generator
        self._next = bytearray()
        self._tell = 0
        super().__init__()

    def readable(self):
        return not self.closed

    def tell(self):
        return self._tell

    def read(self, size=-1):
        # requests `iter_content()` auto-adjusts the number of bytes based on bandwidth
        # can't assume how many bytes next returns so stash any extra in `self._next`
        if self.closed:
            raise ValueError("read from a closed file")
        if self._next is None:
            return b""
        if size is None:
            size = -1

        res = self._next
        while size < 0 or len(res) < size:
            try:
                res.extend(next(self._bytes_generator))
            except StopIteration:
                self._next = None
                break

        if size > 0 and self._next is not None:
            self._next = res[size:]
            res = res[:size]

        self._tell += len(res)
        return bytes(res)

    def close(self):
        if not self.closed:
            self._bytes_generator.close()
        super().close()


class DocumentYielder:
    """Look for XML documents in a streaming HTTP response and yield them as they become available from the stream."""

    def __init__(self, content_iterator, document_tag="Envelope"):
        self._iterator = content_iterator
        self._document_tag = document_tag.encode()

    def _get_tag(self):
        """Iterate over the bytes until we have a full tag in the buffer. If there's a '>' in an attr value, then we'll
        exit on that, but it's OK becaus wejust need the plain tag name later.
        """
        tag_buffer = [b"<"]
        while True:
            try:
                c = next(self._iterator)
            except StopIteration:
                break
            tag_buffer.append(c)
            if c == b">":
                break
        return b"".join(tag_buffer)

    @staticmethod
    def _normalize_tag(tag):
        """Returns the plain tag name given a range of tag formats:
        * <tag>
        * <ns:tag>
        * <ns:tag foo='bar'>
        * </ns:tag foo='bar'>
        """
        return tag.strip(b"<>/").split(b" ")[0].split(b":")[-1]

    def __iter__(self):
        """Consumes the content iterator, looking for start and end tags. Returns each document when we have fully
        collected it.
        """
        doc_started = False
        buffer = []
        try:
            while True:
                c = next(self._iterator)
                if not doc_started and c == b"<":
                    tag = self._get_tag()
                    if self._normalize_tag(tag) == self._document_tag:
                        # Start of document. Collect bytes from this point
                        buffer.append(tag)
                        doc_started = True
                elif doc_started and c == b"<":
                    tag = self._get_tag()
                    buffer.append(tag)
                    if self._normalize_tag(tag) == self._document_tag:
                        # End of document. Yield a valid document and reset the buffer
                        yield b"<?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8'?>\n" + b"".join(buffer)
                        doc_started = False
                        buffer = []
                elif doc_started:
                    buffer.append(c)
        except StopIteration:
            return


def to_xml(bytes_content):
    """Convert bytes or a generator of bytes to an XML tree."""
    # Exchange servers may spit out the weirdest XML. lxml is pretty good at recovering from errors
    if isinstance(bytes_content, bytes):
        stream = io.BytesIO(bytes_content)
    else:
        stream = BytesGeneratorIO(bytes_content)
    try:
        res = lxml.etree.parse(stream, parser=_forgiving_parser)  # nosec
    except AssertionError as e:
        raise ParseError(e.args[0], "<not from file>", -1, 0)
    except lxml.etree.ParseError as e:
        if hasattr(e, "position"):
            e.lineno, e.offset = e.position
        if not e.lineno:
            raise ParseError(str(e), "<not from file>", e.lineno, e.offset)
        try:
            stream.seek(0)
            offending_line = stream.read().splitlines()[e.lineno - 1]
        except (IndexError, io.UnsupportedOperation):
            raise ParseError(str(e), "<not from file>", e.lineno, e.offset)
        else:
            offending_excerpt = offending_line[max(0, e.offset - 20) : e.offset + 20]
            msg = f'{e}\nOffending text: [...]{offending_excerpt.decode("utf-8", errors="ignore")}[...]'
            raise ParseError(msg, "<not from file>", e.lineno, e.offset)
    except TypeError:
        try:
            stream.seek(0)
        except (IndexError, io.UnsupportedOperation):
            pass
        raise ParseError(f"This is not XML: {stream.read()!r}", "<not from file>", -1, 0)

    if res.getroot() is None:
        try:
            stream.seek(0)
            msg = f"No root element found: {stream.read()!r}"
        except (IndexError, io.UnsupportedOperation):
            msg = "No root element found"
        raise ParseError(msg, "<not from file>", -1, 0)
    return res


def is_xml(text, expected_prefix=b"<?xml"):
    """Lightweight test if response is an XML doc. It's better to be fast than correct here.

    :param text: The string to check
    :param expected_prefix: What to search for in the start if the string
    :return:
    """
    # BOM_UTF8 is an UTF-8 byte order mark which may precede the XML from an Exchange server
    bom_len = len(BOM_UTF8)
    prefix_len = len(expected_prefix)
    if text[:bom_len] == BOM_UTF8:
        prefix = text[bom_len : bom_len + prefix_len]
    else:
        prefix = text[:prefix_len]
    return prefix == expected_prefix


class PrettyXmlHandler(logging.StreamHandler):
    """A steaming log handler that prettifies log statements containing XML when output is a terminal."""

    def parse_bytes(self, xml_bytes):
        return to_xml(xml_bytes)

    def prettify_xml(self, xml_bytes):
        """Re-format an XML document to a consistent style."""
        return (
            lxml.etree.tostring(self.parse_bytes(xml_bytes), xml_declaration=True, encoding="utf-8", pretty_print=True)
            .replace(b"\t", b"    ")
            .replace(b" xmlns:", b"\n    xmlns:")
        )

    @staticmethod
    def highlight_xml(xml_str):
        """Highlight a string containing XML, using terminal color codes."""
        return highlight(xml_str, XmlLexer(), TerminalFormatter()).rstrip()

    def emit(self, record):
        """Pretty-print and syntax highlight a log statement if all these conditions are met:
           * This is a DEBUG message
           * We're outputting to a terminal
           * The log message args is a dict containing keys starting with 'xml_' and values as bytes

        :param record:
        """
        if record.levelno == logging.DEBUG and self.is_tty() and isinstance(record.args, dict):
            for key, value in record.args.items():
                if not key.startswith("xml_"):
                    continue
                if not isinstance(value, bytes):
                    continue
                if not is_xml(value):
                    continue
                try:
                    record.args[key] = self.highlight_xml(self.prettify_xml(value))
                except Exception as e:
                    # Something bad happened, but we don't want to crash the program just because logging failed
                    print(f"XML highlighting failed: {e}")
        return super().emit(record)

    def is_tty(self):
        """Check if we're outputting to a terminal."""
        try:
            return self.stream.isatty()
        except AttributeError:
            return False


class AnonymizingXmlHandler(PrettyXmlHandler):
    """A steaming log handler that prettifies and anonymizes log statements containing XML when output is a terminal."""

    PRIVATE_TAGS = {"RootItemId", "ItemId", "Id", "RootItemChangeKey", "ChangeKey"}

    def __init__(self, forbidden_strings, *args, **kwargs):
        self.forbidden_strings = forbidden_strings
        super().__init__(*args, **kwargs)

    def parse_bytes(self, xml_bytes):
        root = to_xml(xml_bytes)
        for elem in root.iter():
            # Anonymize element attribute values known to contain private data
            for attr in set(elem.keys()) & self.PRIVATE_TAGS:
                elem.set(attr, "DEADBEEF=")
            # Anonymize anything requested by the caller
            for s in self.forbidden_strings:
                if elem.text is not None:
                    elem.text = elem.text.replace(s, "[REMOVED]")
        return root


class DummyRequest:
    """A class to fake a requests Request object for functions that expect this."""

    def __init__(self, headers=None):
        self.headers = headers or {}


class DummyResponse:
    """A class to fake a requests Response object for functions that expect this."""

    def __init__(
        self, url=None, headers=None, request_headers=None, content=b"", status_code=503, streaming=False, history=None
    ):
        self.status_code = status_code
        self.url = url
        self.headers = headers or {}
        self.content = iter((bytes([b]) for b in content)) if streaming else content
        self.text = content.decode("utf-8", errors="ignore")
        self.request = DummyRequest(headers=request_headers)
        self.reason = ""
        self.history = history

    def iter_content(self):
        return self.content

    def close(self):
        pass


def get_domain(email):
    try:
        return email.split("@")[1].lower()
    except (IndexError, AttributeError):
        raise ValueError(f"{email!r} is not a valid email")


def split_url(url):
    parsed_url = urlparse(url)
    # Use netloc instead of hostname since hostname is None if URL is relative
    return parsed_url.scheme == "https", parsed_url.netloc.lower(), parsed_url.path


def get_redirect_url(response, allow_relative=True, require_relative=False):
    # allow_relative=False throws RelativeRedirect error if scheme and hostname are equal to the request
    # require_relative=True throws RelativeRedirect error if scheme and hostname are not equal to the request
    redirect_url = response.headers.get("location")
    if not redirect_url:
        raise TransportError("HTTP redirect but no location header")
    # At least some servers are kind enough to supply a new location. It may be relative
    redirect_has_ssl, redirect_server, redirect_path = split_url(redirect_url)
    # The response may have been redirected already. Get the original URL
    request_url = response.history[0] if response.history else response.url
    request_has_ssl, request_server, _ = split_url(request_url)
    response_has_ssl, response_server, response_path = split_url(response.url)

    if not redirect_server:
        # Redirect URL is relative. Inherit server and scheme from response URL
        redirect_server = response_server
        redirect_has_ssl = response_has_ssl
    if not redirect_path.startswith("/"):
        # The path is not top-level. Add response path
        redirect_path = (response_path or "/") + redirect_path
    redirect_url = f"{'https' if redirect_has_ssl else 'http'}://{redirect_server}{redirect_path}"
    if redirect_url == request_url:
        # And some are mean enough to redirect to the same location
        raise TransportError(f"Redirect to same location: {redirect_url}")
    if not allow_relative and (request_has_ssl == response_has_ssl and request_server == redirect_server):
        raise RelativeRedirect(redirect_url)
    if require_relative and (request_has_ssl != response_has_ssl or request_server != redirect_server):
        raise RelativeRedirect(redirect_url)
    return redirect_url


RETRY_WAIT = 10  # Seconds to wait before retry on connection errors
MAX_REDIRECTS = 10  # Maximum number of URL redirects before we give up

# A collection of error classes we want to handle as general connection errors
CONNECTION_ERRORS = (
    requests.exceptions.ChunkedEncodingError,
    requests.exceptions.ConnectionError,
    requests.exceptions.Timeout,
    socket.timeout,
    ConnectionResetError,
)

# A collection of error classes we want to handle as TLS verification errors
TLS_ERRORS = (requests.exceptions.SSLError,)
try:
    # If pyOpenSSL is installed, requests will use it and throw this class on TLS errors
    import OpenSSL.SSL

    TLS_ERRORS += (OpenSSL.SSL.Error,)
except ImportError:
    pass


def post_ratelimited(protocol, session, url, headers, data, allow_redirects=False, stream=False, timeout=None):
    """There are two error-handling policies implemented here: a fail-fast policy intended for stand-alone scripts which
    fails on all responses except HTTP 200. The other policy is intended for long-running tasks that need to respect
    rate-limiting errors from the server and paper over outages of up to 1 hour.

    Wrap POST requests in a try-catch loop with a lot of error handling logic and some basic rate-limiting. If a request
    fails, and some conditions are met, the loop waits in increasing intervals, up to 1 hour, before trying again. The
    reason for this is that servers often malfunction for short periods of time, either because of ongoing data
    migrations or other maintenance tasks, misconfigurations or heavy load, or because the connecting user has hit a
    throttling policy limit.

    If the loop exited early, consumers of this package that don't implement their own rate-limiting code could quickly
    swamp such a server with new requests. That would only make things worse. Instead, it's better if the request loop
    waits patiently until the server is functioning again.

    If the connecting user has hit a throttling policy, then the server will start to malfunction in many interesting
    ways, but never actually tell the user what is happening. There is no way to distinguish this situation from other
    malfunctions. The only cure is to stop making requests.

    The contract on sessions here is to return the session that ends up being used, or retiring the session if we
    intend to raise an exception. We give up on max_wait timeout, not number of retries.

    An additional resource on handling throttling policies and client back off strategies:
        https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/exchange/client-developer/exchange-web-services/ews-throttling-in-exchange

    :param protocol:
    :param session:
    :param url:
    :param headers:
    :param data:
    :param allow_redirects:  (Default value = False)
    :param stream:  (Default value = False)
    :param timeout:

    :return:
    """
    if not timeout:
        timeout = protocol.TIMEOUT
    thread_id = get_ident()
    wait = RETRY_WAIT  # Initial retry wait. We double the value on each retry
    retry = 0
    redirects = 0
    log_msg = """\
Retry: %(retry)s
Waited: %(wait)s
Timeout: %(timeout)s
Session: %(session_id)s
Thread: %(thread_id)s
Auth type: %(auth)s
URL: %(url)s
HTTP adapter: %(adapter)s
Allow redirects: %(allow_redirects)s
Streaming: %(stream)s
Response time: %(response_time)s
Status code: %(status_code)s
Request headers: %(request_headers)s
Response headers: %(response_headers)s"""
    xml_log_msg = """\
Request XML: %(xml_request)s
Response XML: %(xml_response)s"""
    log_vals = dict(
        retry=retry,
        wait=wait,
        timeout=timeout,
        session_id=session.session_id,
        thread_id=thread_id,
        auth=session.auth,
        url=url,
        adapter=session.get_adapter(url),
        allow_redirects=allow_redirects,
        stream=stream,
        response_time=None,
        status_code=None,
        request_headers=headers,
        response_headers=None,
    )
    xml_log_vals = dict(
        xml_request=None,
        xml_response=None,
    )
    t_start = time.monotonic()
    try:
        while True:
            backed_off = _back_off_if_needed(protocol.retry_policy.back_off_until)
            if backed_off:
                # We may have slept for a long time. Renew the session.
                session = protocol.renew_session(session)
            log.debug(
                "Session %s thread %s: retry %s timeout %s POST'ing to %s after %ss wait",
                session.session_id,
                thread_id,
                retry,
                timeout,
                url,
                wait,
            )
            d_start = time.monotonic()
            # Always create a dummy response for logging purposes, in case we fail in the following
            r = DummyResponse(url=url, request_headers=headers)
            kwargs = dict(url=url, headers=headers, data=data, allow_redirects=False, timeout=timeout, stream=stream)
            if isinstance(session, OAuth2Session):
                # Fix token refreshing bug. Reported as https://github.com/requests/requests-oauthlib/issues/498
                kwargs.update(session.auto_refresh_kwargs)
            try:
                r = session.post(**kwargs)
            except TLS_ERRORS as e:
                # Don't retry on TLS errors. They will most likely be persistent.
                raise TransportError(str(e))
            except CONNECTION_ERRORS as e:
                log.debug("Session %s thread %s: connection error POST'ing to %s", session.session_id, thread_id, url)
                r = DummyResponse(url=url, headers={"TimeoutException": e}, request_headers=headers)
            except TokenExpiredError as e:
                log.debug("Session %s thread %s: OAuth token expired; refreshing", session.session_id, thread_id)
                r = DummyResponse(url=url, headers={"TokenExpiredError": e}, request_headers=headers, status_code=401)
            except KeyError as e:
                if e.args[0] != "www-authenticate":
                    raise
                log.debug("Session %s thread %s: auth headers missing from %s", session.session_id, thread_id, url)
                r = DummyResponse(url=url, headers={"KeyError": e}, request_headers=headers)
            finally:
                log_vals.update(
                    retry=retry,
                    wait=wait,
                    session_id=session.session_id,
                    url=str(r.url),
                    response_time=time.monotonic() - d_start,
                    status_code=r.status_code,
                    request_headers=r.request.headers,
                    response_headers=r.headers,
                )
                xml_log_vals.update(
                    xml_request=data,
                    xml_response="[STREAMING]" if stream else r.content,
                )
            log.debug(log_msg, log_vals)
            xml_log.debug(xml_log_msg, xml_log_vals)
            if _need_new_credentials(response=r):
                r.close()  # Release memory
                session = protocol.refresh_credentials(session)
                continue
            total_wait = time.monotonic() - t_start
            if protocol.retry_policy.may_retry_on_error(response=r, wait=total_wait):
                r.close()  # Release memory
                log.info(
                    "Session %s thread %s: Connection error on URL %s (code %s). Cool down %s secs",
                    session.session_id,
                    thread_id,
                    r.url,
                    r.status_code,
                    wait,
                )
                wait = _retry_after(r, wait)
                protocol.retry_policy.back_off(wait)
                retry += 1
                wait *= 2  # Increase delay for every retry
                continue
            if r.status_code in (301, 302):
                r.close()  # Release memory
                url, redirects = _redirect_or_fail(r, redirects, allow_redirects)
                continue
            break
    except (RateLimitError, RedirectError) as e:
        log.warning(e.value)
        protocol.retire_session(session)
        raise
    except Exception as e:
        # Let higher layers handle this. Add full context for better debugging.
        log.error("%s: %s\n%s\n%s", e.__class__.__name__, str(e), log_msg % log_vals, xml_log_msg % xml_log_vals)
        protocol.retire_session(session)
        raise
    if r.status_code == 500 and r.content and is_xml(r.content):
        # Some genius at Microsoft thinks it's OK to send a valid SOAP response as an HTTP 500
        log.debug("Got status code %s but trying to parse content anyway", r.status_code)
    elif r.status_code != 200:
        protocol.retire_session(session)
        try:
            protocol.retry_policy.raise_response_errors(r)  # Always raises an exception
        except MalformedResponseError as e:
            log.error("%s: %s\n%s\n%s", e.__class__.__name__, str(e), log_msg % log_vals, xml_log_msg % xml_log_vals)
            raise
    log.debug("Session %s thread %s: Useful response from %s", session.session_id, thread_id, url)
    return r, session


def _back_off_if_needed(back_off_until):
    if back_off_until:
        sleep_secs = (back_off_until - datetime.datetime.now()).total_seconds()
        # The back off value may have expired within the last few milliseconds
        if sleep_secs > 0:
            log.warning("Server requested back off until %s. Sleeping %s seconds", back_off_until, sleep_secs)
            time.sleep(sleep_secs)
            return True
    return False


def _need_new_credentials(response):
    return response.status_code == 401 and response.headers.get("TokenExpiredError")


def _redirect_or_fail(response, redirects, allow_redirects):
    # Retry with no delay. If we let requests handle redirects automatically, it would issue a GET to that
    # URL. We still want to POST.
    try:
        redirect_url = get_redirect_url(response=response, allow_relative=False)
    except RelativeRedirect as e:
        log.debug("'allow_redirects' only supports relative redirects (%s -> %s)", response.url, e.value)
        raise RedirectError(url=e.value)
    if not allow_redirects:
        raise TransportError(f"Redirect not allowed but we were redirected ({response.url} -> {redirect_url})")
    log.debug("HTTP redirected to %s", redirect_url)
    redirects += 1
    if redirects > MAX_REDIRECTS:
        raise TransportError("Max redirect count exceeded")
    return redirect_url, redirects


def _retry_after(r, wait):
    """Either return the Retry-After header value or the default wait, whichever is larger."""
    try:
        retry_after = int(r.headers.get("Retry-After", "0"))
    except ValueError:
        pass
    else:
        if retry_after > wait:
            return retry_after
    return wait

Functions

def add_xml_child(tree, name, value)
Expand source code
def add_xml_child(tree, name, value):
    # We're calling add_xml_child many places where we don't have the version handy. Don't pass EWSElement or list of
    # EWSElement to this function!
    tree.append(set_xml_value(elem=create_element(name), value=value))
def chunkify(iterable, chunksize)

Split an iterable into chunks of size chunksize. The last chunk may be smaller than chunksize.

:param iterable: :param chunksize: :return:

Expand source code
def chunkify(iterable, chunksize):
    """Split an iterable into chunks of size ``chunksize``. The last chunk may be smaller than ``chunksize``.

    :param iterable:
    :param chunksize:
    :return:
    """
    from .queryset import QuerySet

    if hasattr(iterable, "__getitem__") and not isinstance(iterable, QuerySet):
        # tuple, list. QuerySet has __getitem__ but that evaluates the entire query greedily. We don't want that here.
        for i in range(0, len(iterable), chunksize):
            yield iterable[i : i + chunksize]
    else:
        # generator, set, map, QuerySet
        chunk = []
        for i in iterable:
            chunk.append(i)
            if len(chunk) == chunksize:
                yield chunk
                chunk = []
        if chunk:
            yield chunk
def create_element(name, attrs=None, nsmap=None)
Expand source code
def create_element(name, attrs=None, nsmap=None):
    if ":" in name:
        ns, name = name.split(":")
        name = f"{{{ns_translation[ns]}}}{name}"
    elem = _forgiving_parser.makeelement(name, nsmap=nsmap)
    if attrs:
        # Try hard to keep attribute order, to ensure deterministic output. This simplifies testing.
        # Dicts in Python 3.6+ have stable ordering.
        for k, v in attrs.items():
            if isinstance(v, bool):
                v = "true" if v else "false"
            elif isinstance(v, int):
                v = str(v)
            elem.set(k, v)
    return elem
def get_domain(email)
Expand source code
def get_domain(email):
    try:
        return email.split("@")[1].lower()
    except (IndexError, AttributeError):
        raise ValueError(f"{email!r} is not a valid email")
def get_redirect_url(response, allow_relative=True, require_relative=False)
Expand source code
def get_redirect_url(response, allow_relative=True, require_relative=False):
    # allow_relative=False throws RelativeRedirect error if scheme and hostname are equal to the request
    # require_relative=True throws RelativeRedirect error if scheme and hostname are not equal to the request
    redirect_url = response.headers.get("location")
    if not redirect_url:
        raise TransportError("HTTP redirect but no location header")
    # At least some servers are kind enough to supply a new location. It may be relative
    redirect_has_ssl, redirect_server, redirect_path = split_url(redirect_url)
    # The response may have been redirected already. Get the original URL
    request_url = response.history[0] if response.history else response.url
    request_has_ssl, request_server, _ = split_url(request_url)
    response_has_ssl, response_server, response_path = split_url(response.url)

    if not redirect_server:
        # Redirect URL is relative. Inherit server and scheme from response URL
        redirect_server = response_server
        redirect_has_ssl = response_has_ssl
    if not redirect_path.startswith("/"):
        # The path is not top-level. Add response path
        redirect_path = (response_path or "/") + redirect_path
    redirect_url = f"{'https' if redirect_has_ssl else 'http'}://{redirect_server}{redirect_path}"
    if redirect_url == request_url:
        # And some are mean enough to redirect to the same location
        raise TransportError(f"Redirect to same location: {redirect_url}")
    if not allow_relative and (request_has_ssl == response_has_ssl and request_server == redirect_server):
        raise RelativeRedirect(redirect_url)
    if require_relative and (request_has_ssl != response_has_ssl or request_server != redirect_server):
        raise RelativeRedirect(redirect_url)
    return redirect_url
def get_xml_attr(tree, name)
Expand source code
def get_xml_attr(tree, name):
    elem = tree.find(name)
    if elem is None:  # Must compare with None, see XML docs
        return None
    return elem.text or None
def get_xml_attrs(tree, name)
Expand source code
def get_xml_attrs(tree, name):
    return [elem.text for elem in tree.findall(name) if elem.text is not None]
def is_iterable(value, generators_allowed=False)

Check if value is a list-like object. Don't match generators and generator-like objects here by default, because callers don't necessarily guarantee that they only iterate the value once. Take care to not match string types and bytes.

:param value: any type of object :param generators_allowed: if True, generators will be treated as iterable (Default value = False)

:return: True or False

Expand source code
def is_iterable(value, generators_allowed=False):
    """Check if value is a list-like object. Don't match generators and generator-like objects here by default, because
    callers don't necessarily guarantee that they only iterate the value once. Take care to not match string types and
    bytes.

    :param value: any type of object
    :param generators_allowed: if True, generators will be treated as iterable (Default value = False)

    :return: True or False
    """
    if generators_allowed:
        if not isinstance(value, (bytes, str)) and hasattr(value, "__iter__"):
            return True
    else:
        if isinstance(value, (tuple, list, set)):
            return True
    return False
def is_xml(text, expected_prefix=b'<?xml')

Lightweight test if response is an XML doc. It's better to be fast than correct here.

:param text: The string to check :param expected_prefix: What to search for in the start if the string :return:

Expand source code
def is_xml(text, expected_prefix=b"<?xml"):
    """Lightweight test if response is an XML doc. It's better to be fast than correct here.

    :param text: The string to check
    :param expected_prefix: What to search for in the start if the string
    :return:
    """
    # BOM_UTF8 is an UTF-8 byte order mark which may precede the XML from an Exchange server
    bom_len = len(BOM_UTF8)
    prefix_len = len(expected_prefix)
    if text[:bom_len] == BOM_UTF8:
        prefix = text[bom_len : bom_len + prefix_len]
    else:
        prefix = text[:prefix_len]
    return prefix == expected_prefix
def peek(iterable)

Check if an iterable is empty and return status and the rewinded iterable.

:param iterable: :return:

Expand source code
def peek(iterable):
    """Check if an iterable is empty and return status and the rewinded iterable.

    :param iterable:
    :return:
    """
    if hasattr(iterable, "__len__"):
        # tuple, list, set
        return not iterable, iterable
    # generator
    try:
        first = next(iterable)
    except StopIteration:
        return True, iterable
    # We can't rewind a generator. Instead, chain the first element and the rest of the generator
    return False, itertools.chain([first], iterable)
def post_ratelimited(protocol, session, url, headers, data, allow_redirects=False, stream=False, timeout=None)

There are two error-handling policies implemented here: a fail-fast policy intended for stand-alone scripts which fails on all responses except HTTP 200. The other policy is intended for long-running tasks that need to respect rate-limiting errors from the server and paper over outages of up to 1 hour.

Wrap POST requests in a try-catch loop with a lot of error handling logic and some basic rate-limiting. If a request fails, and some conditions are met, the loop waits in increasing intervals, up to 1 hour, before trying again. The reason for this is that servers often malfunction for short periods of time, either because of ongoing data migrations or other maintenance tasks, misconfigurations or heavy load, or because the connecting user has hit a throttling policy limit.

If the loop exited early, consumers of this package that don't implement their own rate-limiting code could quickly swamp such a server with new requests. That would only make things worse. Instead, it's better if the request loop waits patiently until the server is functioning again.

If the connecting user has hit a throttling policy, then the server will start to malfunction in many interesting ways, but never actually tell the user what is happening. There is no way to distinguish this situation from other malfunctions. The only cure is to stop making requests.

The contract on sessions here is to return the session that ends up being used, or retiring the session if we intend to raise an exception. We give up on max_wait timeout, not number of retries.

An additional resource on handling throttling policies and client back off strategies: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/exchange/client-developer/exchange-web-services/ews-throttling-in-exchange

:param protocol: :param session: :param url: :param headers: :param data: :param allow_redirects: (Default value = False) :param stream: (Default value = False) :param timeout:

:return:

Expand source code
def post_ratelimited(protocol, session, url, headers, data, allow_redirects=False, stream=False, timeout=None):
    """There are two error-handling policies implemented here: a fail-fast policy intended for stand-alone scripts which
    fails on all responses except HTTP 200. The other policy is intended for long-running tasks that need to respect
    rate-limiting errors from the server and paper over outages of up to 1 hour.

    Wrap POST requests in a try-catch loop with a lot of error handling logic and some basic rate-limiting. If a request
    fails, and some conditions are met, the loop waits in increasing intervals, up to 1 hour, before trying again. The
    reason for this is that servers often malfunction for short periods of time, either because of ongoing data
    migrations or other maintenance tasks, misconfigurations or heavy load, or because the connecting user has hit a
    throttling policy limit.

    If the loop exited early, consumers of this package that don't implement their own rate-limiting code could quickly
    swamp such a server with new requests. That would only make things worse. Instead, it's better if the request loop
    waits patiently until the server is functioning again.

    If the connecting user has hit a throttling policy, then the server will start to malfunction in many interesting
    ways, but never actually tell the user what is happening. There is no way to distinguish this situation from other
    malfunctions. The only cure is to stop making requests.

    The contract on sessions here is to return the session that ends up being used, or retiring the session if we
    intend to raise an exception. We give up on max_wait timeout, not number of retries.

    An additional resource on handling throttling policies and client back off strategies:
        https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/exchange/client-developer/exchange-web-services/ews-throttling-in-exchange

    :param protocol:
    :param session:
    :param url:
    :param headers:
    :param data:
    :param allow_redirects:  (Default value = False)
    :param stream:  (Default value = False)
    :param timeout:

    :return:
    """
    if not timeout:
        timeout = protocol.TIMEOUT
    thread_id = get_ident()
    wait = RETRY_WAIT  # Initial retry wait. We double the value on each retry
    retry = 0
    redirects = 0
    log_msg = """\
Retry: %(retry)s
Waited: %(wait)s
Timeout: %(timeout)s
Session: %(session_id)s
Thread: %(thread_id)s
Auth type: %(auth)s
URL: %(url)s
HTTP adapter: %(adapter)s
Allow redirects: %(allow_redirects)s
Streaming: %(stream)s
Response time: %(response_time)s
Status code: %(status_code)s
Request headers: %(request_headers)s
Response headers: %(response_headers)s"""
    xml_log_msg = """\
Request XML: %(xml_request)s
Response XML: %(xml_response)s"""
    log_vals = dict(
        retry=retry,
        wait=wait,
        timeout=timeout,
        session_id=session.session_id,
        thread_id=thread_id,
        auth=session.auth,
        url=url,
        adapter=session.get_adapter(url),
        allow_redirects=allow_redirects,
        stream=stream,
        response_time=None,
        status_code=None,
        request_headers=headers,
        response_headers=None,
    )
    xml_log_vals = dict(
        xml_request=None,
        xml_response=None,
    )
    t_start = time.monotonic()
    try:
        while True:
            backed_off = _back_off_if_needed(protocol.retry_policy.back_off_until)
            if backed_off:
                # We may have slept for a long time. Renew the session.
                session = protocol.renew_session(session)
            log.debug(
                "Session %s thread %s: retry %s timeout %s POST'ing to %s after %ss wait",
                session.session_id,
                thread_id,
                retry,
                timeout,
                url,
                wait,
            )
            d_start = time.monotonic()
            # Always create a dummy response for logging purposes, in case we fail in the following
            r = DummyResponse(url=url, request_headers=headers)
            kwargs = dict(url=url, headers=headers, data=data, allow_redirects=False, timeout=timeout, stream=stream)
            if isinstance(session, OAuth2Session):
                # Fix token refreshing bug. Reported as https://github.com/requests/requests-oauthlib/issues/498
                kwargs.update(session.auto_refresh_kwargs)
            try:
                r = session.post(**kwargs)
            except TLS_ERRORS as e:
                # Don't retry on TLS errors. They will most likely be persistent.
                raise TransportError(str(e))
            except CONNECTION_ERRORS as e:
                log.debug("Session %s thread %s: connection error POST'ing to %s", session.session_id, thread_id, url)
                r = DummyResponse(url=url, headers={"TimeoutException": e}, request_headers=headers)
            except TokenExpiredError as e:
                log.debug("Session %s thread %s: OAuth token expired; refreshing", session.session_id, thread_id)
                r = DummyResponse(url=url, headers={"TokenExpiredError": e}, request_headers=headers, status_code=401)
            except KeyError as e:
                if e.args[0] != "www-authenticate":
                    raise
                log.debug("Session %s thread %s: auth headers missing from %s", session.session_id, thread_id, url)
                r = DummyResponse(url=url, headers={"KeyError": e}, request_headers=headers)
            finally:
                log_vals.update(
                    retry=retry,
                    wait=wait,
                    session_id=session.session_id,
                    url=str(r.url),
                    response_time=time.monotonic() - d_start,
                    status_code=r.status_code,
                    request_headers=r.request.headers,
                    response_headers=r.headers,
                )
                xml_log_vals.update(
                    xml_request=data,
                    xml_response="[STREAMING]" if stream else r.content,
                )
            log.debug(log_msg, log_vals)
            xml_log.debug(xml_log_msg, xml_log_vals)
            if _need_new_credentials(response=r):
                r.close()  # Release memory
                session = protocol.refresh_credentials(session)
                continue
            total_wait = time.monotonic() - t_start
            if protocol.retry_policy.may_retry_on_error(response=r, wait=total_wait):
                r.close()  # Release memory
                log.info(
                    "Session %s thread %s: Connection error on URL %s (code %s). Cool down %s secs",
                    session.session_id,
                    thread_id,
                    r.url,
                    r.status_code,
                    wait,
                )
                wait = _retry_after(r, wait)
                protocol.retry_policy.back_off(wait)
                retry += 1
                wait *= 2  # Increase delay for every retry
                continue
            if r.status_code in (301, 302):
                r.close()  # Release memory
                url, redirects = _redirect_or_fail(r, redirects, allow_redirects)
                continue
            break
    except (RateLimitError, RedirectError) as e:
        log.warning(e.value)
        protocol.retire_session(session)
        raise
    except Exception as e:
        # Let higher layers handle this. Add full context for better debugging.
        log.error("%s: %s\n%s\n%s", e.__class__.__name__, str(e), log_msg % log_vals, xml_log_msg % xml_log_vals)
        protocol.retire_session(session)
        raise
    if r.status_code == 500 and r.content and is_xml(r.content):
        # Some genius at Microsoft thinks it's OK to send a valid SOAP response as an HTTP 500
        log.debug("Got status code %s but trying to parse content anyway", r.status_code)
    elif r.status_code != 200:
        protocol.retire_session(session)
        try:
            protocol.retry_policy.raise_response_errors(r)  # Always raises an exception
        except MalformedResponseError as e:
            log.error("%s: %s\n%s\n%s", e.__class__.__name__, str(e), log_msg % log_vals, xml_log_msg % xml_log_vals)
            raise
    log.debug("Session %s thread %s: Useful response from %s", session.session_id, thread_id, url)
    return r, session
def prepare_input_source(source)
Expand source code
def prepare_input_source(source):
    # Extracted from xml.sax.expatreader.saxutils.prepare_input_source
    f = source
    source = _InputSource()
    source.setByteStream(f)
    return source
def require_account(f)
Expand source code
def require_account(f):
    @wraps(f)
    def wrapper(self, *args, **kwargs):
        if not self.account:
            raise ValueError(f"{self.__class__.__name__} must have an account")
        return f(self, *args, **kwargs)

    return wrapper
def require_id(f)
Expand source code
def require_id(f):
    @wraps(f)
    def wrapper(self, *args, **kwargs):
        if not self.account:
            raise ValueError(f"{self.__class__.__name__} must have an account")
        if not self.id:
            raise ValueError(f"{self.__class__.__name__} must have an ID")
        return f(self, *args, **kwargs)

    return wrapper
def safe_b64decode(data)
Expand source code
def safe_b64decode(data):
    # Incoming base64-encoded data is not always padded to a multiple of 4. Python's parser is more strict and requires
    # padding. Add padding if it's needed.
    overflow = len(data) % 4
    if overflow:
        if isinstance(data, str):
            padding = "=" * (4 - overflow)
        else:
            padding = b"=" * (4 - overflow)
        data += padding
    return b64decode(data)
def safe_xml_value(value, replacement='?')
Expand source code
def safe_xml_value(value, replacement="?"):
    return _ILLEGAL_XML_CHARS_RE.sub(replacement, value)
def set_xml_value(elem, value, version=None)
Expand source code
def set_xml_value(elem, value, version=None):
    from .ewsdatetime import EWSDate, EWSDateTime
    from .fields import FieldOrder, FieldPath
    from .properties import EWSElement
    from .version import Version

    if isinstance(value, (str, bool, bytes, int, Decimal, datetime.time, EWSDate, EWSDateTime)):
        elem.text = value_to_xml_text(value)
    elif isinstance(value, _element_class):
        elem.append(value)
    elif isinstance(value, (FieldPath, FieldOrder)):
        elem.append(value.to_xml())
    elif isinstance(value, EWSElement):
        if not isinstance(version, Version):
            raise InvalidTypeError("version", version, Version)
        elem.append(value.to_xml(version=version))
    elif is_iterable(value, generators_allowed=True):
        for v in value:
            set_xml_value(elem, v, version=version)
    else:
        raise ValueError(f"Unsupported type {type(value)} for value {value} on elem {elem}")
    return elem
def split_url(url)
Expand source code
def split_url(url):
    parsed_url = urlparse(url)
    # Use netloc instead of hostname since hostname is None if URL is relative
    return parsed_url.scheme == "https", parsed_url.netloc.lower(), parsed_url.path
def to_xml(bytes_content)

Convert bytes or a generator of bytes to an XML tree.

Expand source code
def to_xml(bytes_content):
    """Convert bytes or a generator of bytes to an XML tree."""
    # Exchange servers may spit out the weirdest XML. lxml is pretty good at recovering from errors
    if isinstance(bytes_content, bytes):
        stream = io.BytesIO(bytes_content)
    else:
        stream = BytesGeneratorIO(bytes_content)
    try:
        res = lxml.etree.parse(stream, parser=_forgiving_parser)  # nosec
    except AssertionError as e:
        raise ParseError(e.args[0], "<not from file>", -1, 0)
    except lxml.etree.ParseError as e:
        if hasattr(e, "position"):
            e.lineno, e.offset = e.position
        if not e.lineno:
            raise ParseError(str(e), "<not from file>", e.lineno, e.offset)
        try:
            stream.seek(0)
            offending_line = stream.read().splitlines()[e.lineno - 1]
        except (IndexError, io.UnsupportedOperation):
            raise ParseError(str(e), "<not from file>", e.lineno, e.offset)
        else:
            offending_excerpt = offending_line[max(0, e.offset - 20) : e.offset + 20]
            msg = f'{e}\nOffending text: [...]{offending_excerpt.decode("utf-8", errors="ignore")}[...]'
            raise ParseError(msg, "<not from file>", e.lineno, e.offset)
    except TypeError:
        try:
            stream.seek(0)
        except (IndexError, io.UnsupportedOperation):
            pass
        raise ParseError(f"This is not XML: {stream.read()!r}", "<not from file>", -1, 0)

    if res.getroot() is None:
        try:
            stream.seek(0)
            msg = f"No root element found: {stream.read()!r}"
        except (IndexError, io.UnsupportedOperation):
            msg = "No root element found"
        raise ParseError(msg, "<not from file>", -1, 0)
    return res
def value_to_xml_text(value)
Expand source code
def value_to_xml_text(value):
    from .ewsdatetime import EWSDate, EWSDateTime, EWSTimeZone
    from .indexed_properties import EmailAddress, PhoneNumber
    from .properties import AssociatedCalendarItemId, Attendee, ConversationId, Mailbox

    # We can't just create a map and look up with type(value) because we want to support subtypes
    if isinstance(value, str):
        return safe_xml_value(value)
    if isinstance(value, bool):
        return "1" if value else "0"
    if isinstance(value, bytes):
        return b64encode(value).decode("ascii")
    if isinstance(value, (int, Decimal)):
        return str(value)
    if isinstance(value, datetime.time):
        return value.isoformat()
    if isinstance(value, EWSTimeZone):
        return value.ms_id
    if isinstance(value, EWSDateTime):
        return value.ewsformat()
    if isinstance(value, EWSDate):
        return value.ewsformat()
    if isinstance(value, PhoneNumber):
        return value.phone_number
    if isinstance(value, EmailAddress):
        return value.email
    if isinstance(value, Mailbox):
        return value.email_address
    if isinstance(value, Attendee):
        return value.mailbox.email_address
    if isinstance(value, ConversationId):
        return value.id
    if isinstance(value, AssociatedCalendarItemId):
        return value.id
    raise TypeError(f"Unsupported type: {type(value)} ({value})")
def xml_text_to_value(value, value_type)
Expand source code
def xml_text_to_value(value, value_type):
    from .ewsdatetime import EWSDate, EWSDateTime

    if value_type == str:
        return value
    if value_type == bool:
        try:
            return {
                "true": True,
                "on": True,
                "false": False,
                "off": False,
            }[value.lower()]
        except KeyError:
            return None
    return {
        bytes: safe_b64decode,
        int: int,
        Decimal: Decimal,
        datetime.timedelta: isodate.parse_duration,
        EWSDate: EWSDate.from_string,
        EWSDateTime: EWSDateTime.from_string,
    }[value_type](value)
def xml_to_str(tree, encoding=None, xml_declaration=False)

Serialize an XML tree. Returns unicode if 'encoding' is None. Otherwise, we return encoded 'bytes'.

:param tree: :param encoding: (Default value = None) :param xml_declaration: (Default value = False) :return:

Expand source code
def xml_to_str(tree, encoding=None, xml_declaration=False):
    """Serialize an XML tree. Returns unicode if 'encoding' is None. Otherwise, we return encoded 'bytes'.

    :param tree:
    :param encoding:  (Default value = None)
    :param xml_declaration:  (Default value = False)
    :return:
    """
    if xml_declaration and not encoding:
        raise AttributeError("'xml_declaration' is not supported when 'encoding' is None")
    if encoding:
        return lxml.etree.tostring(tree, encoding=encoding, xml_declaration=True)
    return lxml.etree.tostring(tree, encoding=str, xml_declaration=False)

Classes

class AnonymizingXmlHandler (forbidden_strings, *args, **kwargs)

A steaming log handler that prettifies and anonymizes log statements containing XML when output is a terminal.

Initialize the handler.

If stream is not specified, sys.stderr is used.

Expand source code
class AnonymizingXmlHandler(PrettyXmlHandler):
    """A steaming log handler that prettifies and anonymizes log statements containing XML when output is a terminal."""

    PRIVATE_TAGS = {"RootItemId", "ItemId", "Id", "RootItemChangeKey", "ChangeKey"}

    def __init__(self, forbidden_strings, *args, **kwargs):
        self.forbidden_strings = forbidden_strings
        super().__init__(*args, **kwargs)

    def parse_bytes(self, xml_bytes):
        root = to_xml(xml_bytes)
        for elem in root.iter():
            # Anonymize element attribute values known to contain private data
            for attr in set(elem.keys()) & self.PRIVATE_TAGS:
                elem.set(attr, "DEADBEEF=")
            # Anonymize anything requested by the caller
            for s in self.forbidden_strings:
                if elem.text is not None:
                    elem.text = elem.text.replace(s, "[REMOVED]")
        return root

Ancestors

Class variables

var PRIVATE_TAGS

Methods

def parse_bytes(self, xml_bytes)
Expand source code
def parse_bytes(self, xml_bytes):
    root = to_xml(xml_bytes)
    for elem in root.iter():
        # Anonymize element attribute values known to contain private data
        for attr in set(elem.keys()) & self.PRIVATE_TAGS:
            elem.set(attr, "DEADBEEF=")
        # Anonymize anything requested by the caller
        for s in self.forbidden_strings:
            if elem.text is not None:
                elem.text = elem.text.replace(s, "[REMOVED]")
    return root

Inherited members

class BytesGeneratorIO (bytes_generator)

A BytesIO that can produce bytes from a streaming HTTP request. Expects r.iter_content() as input lxml tries to be smart by calling getvalue when present, assuming that the entire string is in memory. Omitting getvalue forces lxml to stream the request through read avoiding the memory duplication.

Expand source code
class BytesGeneratorIO(io.RawIOBase):
    """A BytesIO that can produce bytes from a streaming HTTP request. Expects r.iter_content() as input
    lxml tries to be smart by calling `getvalue` when present, assuming that the entire string is in memory.
    Omitting `getvalue` forces lxml to stream the request through `read` avoiding the memory duplication.
    """

    def __init__(self, bytes_generator):
        self._bytes_generator = bytes_generator
        self._next = bytearray()
        self._tell = 0
        super().__init__()

    def readable(self):
        return not self.closed

    def tell(self):
        return self._tell

    def read(self, size=-1):
        # requests `iter_content()` auto-adjusts the number of bytes based on bandwidth
        # can't assume how many bytes next returns so stash any extra in `self._next`
        if self.closed:
            raise ValueError("read from a closed file")
        if self._next is None:
            return b""
        if size is None:
            size = -1

        res = self._next
        while size < 0 or len(res) < size:
            try:
                res.extend(next(self._bytes_generator))
            except StopIteration:
                self._next = None
                break

        if size > 0 and self._next is not None:
            self._next = res[size:]
            res = res[:size]

        self._tell += len(res)
        return bytes(res)

    def close(self):
        if not self.closed:
            self._bytes_generator.close()
        super().close()

Ancestors

  • io.RawIOBase
  • _io._RawIOBase
  • io.IOBase
  • _io._IOBase

Methods

def close(self)

Flush and close the IO object.

This method has no effect if the file is already closed.

Expand source code
def close(self):
    if not self.closed:
        self._bytes_generator.close()
    super().close()
def read(self, size=-1)
Expand source code
def read(self, size=-1):
    # requests `iter_content()` auto-adjusts the number of bytes based on bandwidth
    # can't assume how many bytes next returns so stash any extra in `self._next`
    if self.closed:
        raise ValueError("read from a closed file")
    if self._next is None:
        return b""
    if size is None:
        size = -1

    res = self._next
    while size < 0 or len(res) < size:
        try:
            res.extend(next(self._bytes_generator))
        except StopIteration:
            self._next = None
            break

    if size > 0 and self._next is not None:
        self._next = res[size:]
        res = res[:size]

    self._tell += len(res)
    return bytes(res)
def readable(self)

Return whether object was opened for reading.

If False, read() will raise OSError.

Expand source code
def readable(self):
    return not self.closed
def tell(self)

Return current stream position.

Expand source code
def tell(self):
    return self._tell
class DocumentYielder (content_iterator, document_tag='Envelope')

Look for XML documents in a streaming HTTP response and yield them as they become available from the stream.

Expand source code
class DocumentYielder:
    """Look for XML documents in a streaming HTTP response and yield them as they become available from the stream."""

    def __init__(self, content_iterator, document_tag="Envelope"):
        self._iterator = content_iterator
        self._document_tag = document_tag.encode()

    def _get_tag(self):
        """Iterate over the bytes until we have a full tag in the buffer. If there's a '>' in an attr value, then we'll
        exit on that, but it's OK becaus wejust need the plain tag name later.
        """
        tag_buffer = [b"<"]
        while True:
            try:
                c = next(self._iterator)
            except StopIteration:
                break
            tag_buffer.append(c)
            if c == b">":
                break
        return b"".join(tag_buffer)

    @staticmethod
    def _normalize_tag(tag):
        """Returns the plain tag name given a range of tag formats:
        * <tag>
        * <ns:tag>
        * <ns:tag foo='bar'>
        * </ns:tag foo='bar'>
        """
        return tag.strip(b"<>/").split(b" ")[0].split(b":")[-1]

    def __iter__(self):
        """Consumes the content iterator, looking for start and end tags. Returns each document when we have fully
        collected it.
        """
        doc_started = False
        buffer = []
        try:
            while True:
                c = next(self._iterator)
                if not doc_started and c == b"<":
                    tag = self._get_tag()
                    if self._normalize_tag(tag) == self._document_tag:
                        # Start of document. Collect bytes from this point
                        buffer.append(tag)
                        doc_started = True
                elif doc_started and c == b"<":
                    tag = self._get_tag()
                    buffer.append(tag)
                    if self._normalize_tag(tag) == self._document_tag:
                        # End of document. Yield a valid document and reset the buffer
                        yield b"<?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8'?>\n" + b"".join(buffer)
                        doc_started = False
                        buffer = []
                elif doc_started:
                    buffer.append(c)
        except StopIteration:
            return
class DummyRequest (headers=None)

A class to fake a requests Request object for functions that expect this.

Expand source code
class DummyRequest:
    """A class to fake a requests Request object for functions that expect this."""

    def __init__(self, headers=None):
        self.headers = headers or {}
class DummyResponse (url=None, headers=None, request_headers=None, content=b'', status_code=503, streaming=False, history=None)

A class to fake a requests Response object for functions that expect this.

Expand source code
class DummyResponse:
    """A class to fake a requests Response object for functions that expect this."""

    def __init__(
        self, url=None, headers=None, request_headers=None, content=b"", status_code=503, streaming=False, history=None
    ):
        self.status_code = status_code
        self.url = url
        self.headers = headers or {}
        self.content = iter((bytes([b]) for b in content)) if streaming else content
        self.text = content.decode("utf-8", errors="ignore")
        self.request = DummyRequest(headers=request_headers)
        self.reason = ""
        self.history = history

    def iter_content(self):
        return self.content

    def close(self):
        pass

Methods

def close(self)
Expand source code
def close(self):
    pass
def iter_content(self)
Expand source code
def iter_content(self):
    return self.content
class ElementNotFound (msg, data)

Raised when the expected element was not found in a response stream.

Expand source code
class ElementNotFound(Exception):
    """Raised when the expected element was not found in a response stream."""

    def __init__(self, msg, data):
        super().__init__(msg)
        self.data = data

Ancestors

  • builtins.Exception
  • builtins.BaseException
class ParseError (message, code, line, column, filename=None)

Used to wrap lxml ParseError in our own class.

Expand source code
class ParseError(lxml.etree.ParseError):
    """Used to wrap lxml ParseError in our own class."""

Ancestors

  • lxml.etree.ParseError
  • lxml.etree.LxmlSyntaxError
  • lxml.etree.LxmlError
  • lxml.etree.Error
  • builtins.SyntaxError
  • builtins.Exception
  • builtins.BaseException
class PrettyXmlHandler (stream=None)

A steaming log handler that prettifies log statements containing XML when output is a terminal.

Initialize the handler.

If stream is not specified, sys.stderr is used.

Expand source code
class PrettyXmlHandler(logging.StreamHandler):
    """A steaming log handler that prettifies log statements containing XML when output is a terminal."""

    def parse_bytes(self, xml_bytes):
        return to_xml(xml_bytes)

    def prettify_xml(self, xml_bytes):
        """Re-format an XML document to a consistent style."""
        return (
            lxml.etree.tostring(self.parse_bytes(xml_bytes), xml_declaration=True, encoding="utf-8", pretty_print=True)
            .replace(b"\t", b"    ")
            .replace(b" xmlns:", b"\n    xmlns:")
        )

    @staticmethod
    def highlight_xml(xml_str):
        """Highlight a string containing XML, using terminal color codes."""
        return highlight(xml_str, XmlLexer(), TerminalFormatter()).rstrip()

    def emit(self, record):
        """Pretty-print and syntax highlight a log statement if all these conditions are met:
           * This is a DEBUG message
           * We're outputting to a terminal
           * The log message args is a dict containing keys starting with 'xml_' and values as bytes

        :param record:
        """
        if record.levelno == logging.DEBUG and self.is_tty() and isinstance(record.args, dict):
            for key, value in record.args.items():
                if not key.startswith("xml_"):
                    continue
                if not isinstance(value, bytes):
                    continue
                if not is_xml(value):
                    continue
                try:
                    record.args[key] = self.highlight_xml(self.prettify_xml(value))
                except Exception as e:
                    # Something bad happened, but we don't want to crash the program just because logging failed
                    print(f"XML highlighting failed: {e}")
        return super().emit(record)

    def is_tty(self):
        """Check if we're outputting to a terminal."""
        try:
            return self.stream.isatty()
        except AttributeError:
            return False

Ancestors

  • logging.StreamHandler
  • logging.Handler
  • logging.Filterer

Subclasses

Static methods

def highlight_xml(xml_str)

Highlight a string containing XML, using terminal color codes.

Expand source code
@staticmethod
def highlight_xml(xml_str):
    """Highlight a string containing XML, using terminal color codes."""
    return highlight(xml_str, XmlLexer(), TerminalFormatter()).rstrip()

Methods

def emit(self, record)

Pretty-print and syntax highlight a log statement if all these conditions are met: * This is a DEBUG message * We're outputting to a terminal * The log message args is a dict containing keys starting with 'xml_' and values as bytes

:param record:

Expand source code
def emit(self, record):
    """Pretty-print and syntax highlight a log statement if all these conditions are met:
       * This is a DEBUG message
       * We're outputting to a terminal
       * The log message args is a dict containing keys starting with 'xml_' and values as bytes

    :param record:
    """
    if record.levelno == logging.DEBUG and self.is_tty() and isinstance(record.args, dict):
        for key, value in record.args.items():
            if not key.startswith("xml_"):
                continue
            if not isinstance(value, bytes):
                continue
            if not is_xml(value):
                continue
            try:
                record.args[key] = self.highlight_xml(self.prettify_xml(value))
            except Exception as e:
                # Something bad happened, but we don't want to crash the program just because logging failed
                print(f"XML highlighting failed: {e}")
    return super().emit(record)
def is_tty(self)

Check if we're outputting to a terminal.

Expand source code
def is_tty(self):
    """Check if we're outputting to a terminal."""
    try:
        return self.stream.isatty()
    except AttributeError:
        return False
def parse_bytes(self, xml_bytes)
Expand source code
def parse_bytes(self, xml_bytes):
    return to_xml(xml_bytes)
def prettify_xml(self, xml_bytes)

Re-format an XML document to a consistent style.

Expand source code
def prettify_xml(self, xml_bytes):
    """Re-format an XML document to a consistent style."""
    return (
        lxml.etree.tostring(self.parse_bytes(xml_bytes), xml_declaration=True, encoding="utf-8", pretty_print=True)
        .replace(b"\t", b"    ")
        .replace(b" xmlns:", b"\n    xmlns:")
    )
class StreamingBase64Parser (*args, **kwargs)

A SAX parser that returns a generator of base64-decoded character content.

Expand source code
class StreamingBase64Parser(DefusedExpatParser):
    """A SAX parser that returns a generator of base64-decoded character content."""

    def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
        DefusedExpatParser.__init__(self, *args, **kwargs)
        self._namespaces = True
        self.buffer = None
        self.element_found = None

    def parse(self, r):
        raw_source = r.raw
        # Like upstream but yields the return value of self.feed()
        raw_source = prepare_input_source(raw_source)
        self.prepareParser(raw_source)
        file = raw_source.getByteStream()
        self.buffer = []
        self.element_found = False
        buffer = file.read(self._bufsize)
        collected_data = []
        while buffer:
            if not self.element_found:
                collected_data += buffer
            yield from self.feed(buffer)
            buffer = file.read(self._bufsize)
        # Any remaining data in self.buffer should be padding chars now
        self.buffer = None
        self.close()
        if not self.element_found:
            data = bytes(collected_data)
            raise ElementNotFound("The element to be streamed from was not found", data=bytes(data))

    def feed(self, data, isFinal=0):
        """Yield the current content of the character buffer."""
        DefusedExpatParser.feed(self, data=data, isFinal=isFinal)
        return self._decode_buffer()

    def _decode_buffer(self):
        remainder = ""
        for data in self.buffer:
            available = len(remainder) + len(data)
            overflow = available % 4  # Make sure we always decode a multiple of 4
            if remainder:
                data = remainder + data
                remainder = ""
            if overflow:
                remainder, data = data[-overflow:], data[:-overflow]
            if data:
                yield b64decode(data)
        self.buffer = [remainder] if remainder else []

Ancestors

  • defusedxml.expatreader.DefusedExpatParser
  • xml.sax.expatreader.ExpatParser
  • xml.sax.xmlreader.IncrementalParser
  • xml.sax.xmlreader.XMLReader
  • xml.sax.xmlreader.Locator

Methods

def feed(self, data, isFinal=0)

Yield the current content of the character buffer.

Expand source code
def feed(self, data, isFinal=0):
    """Yield the current content of the character buffer."""
    DefusedExpatParser.feed(self, data=data, isFinal=isFinal)
    return self._decode_buffer()
def parse(self, r)

Parse an XML document from a URL or an InputSource.

Expand source code
def parse(self, r):
    raw_source = r.raw
    # Like upstream but yields the return value of self.feed()
    raw_source = prepare_input_source(raw_source)
    self.prepareParser(raw_source)
    file = raw_source.getByteStream()
    self.buffer = []
    self.element_found = False
    buffer = file.read(self._bufsize)
    collected_data = []
    while buffer:
        if not self.element_found:
            collected_data += buffer
        yield from self.feed(buffer)
        buffer = file.read(self._bufsize)
    # Any remaining data in self.buffer should be padding chars now
    self.buffer = None
    self.close()
    if not self.element_found:
        data = bytes(collected_data)
        raise ElementNotFound("The element to be streamed from was not found", data=bytes(data))
class StreamingContentHandler (parser, ns, element_name)

A SAX content handler that returns a character data for a single element back to the parser. The parser must have a 'buffer' attribute we can append data to.

Expand source code
class StreamingContentHandler(xml.sax.handler.ContentHandler):
    """A SAX content handler that returns a character data for a single element back to the parser. The parser must have
    a 'buffer' attribute we can append data to.
    """

    def __init__(self, parser, ns, element_name):
        xml.sax.handler.ContentHandler.__init__(self)
        self._parser = parser
        self._ns = ns
        self._element_name = element_name
        self._parsing = False

    def startElementNS(self, name, qname, attrs):
        if name == (self._ns, self._element_name):
            # we can expect element data next
            self._parsing = True
            self._parser.element_found = True

    def endElementNS(self, name, qname):
        if name == (self._ns, self._element_name):
            # all element data received
            self._parsing = False

    def characters(self, content):
        if not self._parsing:
            return
        self._parser.buffer.append(content)

Ancestors

  • xml.sax.handler.ContentHandler

Methods

def characters(self, content)

Receive notification of character data.

The Parser will call this method to report each chunk of character data. SAX parsers may return all contiguous character data in a single chunk, or they may split it into several chunks; however, all of the characters in any single event must come from the same external entity so that the Locator provides useful information.

Expand source code
def characters(self, content):
    if not self._parsing:
        return
    self._parser.buffer.append(content)
def endElementNS(self, name, qname)

Signals the end of an element in namespace mode.

The name parameter contains the name of the element type, just as with the startElementNS event.

Expand source code
def endElementNS(self, name, qname):
    if name == (self._ns, self._element_name):
        # all element data received
        self._parsing = False
def startElementNS(self, name, qname, attrs)

Signals the start of an element in namespace mode.

The name parameter contains the name of the element type as a (uri, localname) tuple, the qname parameter the raw XML 1.0 name used in the source document, and the attrs parameter holds an instance of the Attributes class containing the attributes of the element.

The uri part of the name tuple is None for elements which have no namespace.

Expand source code
def startElementNS(self, name, qname, attrs):
    if name == (self._ns, self._element_name):
        # we can expect element data next
        self._parsing = True
        self._parser.element_found = True